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Key idea 3: Developing literacy through languages

Language learning is the only learning area that necessarily involves working in two or more languages simultaneously, and with these languages, their related knowledge, cultures and meaning-making systems (Scarino, Kohler, Benadetti: 2014). Literacy skills are not English specific. Learning languages has been shown to build students’ metalinguistic awareness, a key skill in learning to read. Multilingual students are also more easily able to perceive language as a system, and that the relationship between the written word and its meaning are arbitrary. Cognitively demanding skills, including literacy, content learning, abstract thinking and problem solving, are common across languages. Development of these skills in one language will have a beneficial effect on the other. In this way, learning other languages should be seen as value adding rather than hindering first language learning.

Students may possess rich linguistic resources, regardless of the languages/dialects they speak. The linguistic/literacy skills that multilingual students bring to the classroom should be recognised as such, rather than seen as deficits. This requires engagement with, and responsiveness to, the broad linguistic landscapes of our classrooms.


More discussions can be found on the key idea 3 forum.


Why are we focusing on improving students English literacy skills in languages? 

Video transcript of why are we focusing on improving students English literacy skills in languages?

Susan Cameron [00:00:01] We know that there exists a strong connection between literacy and languages, learning languages has been shown to build student's metalinguistic awareness, a key skill in learning to read. In this way, learning additional languages are really value adding rather than hindering first language learning. I really hope you make the most of this day and we need you to have an active role in your school to support the literacy development of your students as languages is a learning area that is best placed to make a positive difference to the educational outcomes of all of our students.


Dr Sam Osborne [00:00:42] One of the earlier questions was if NAPLAN is the measure of success as we heard earlier, what arguments or adjustments need to be made in the language learning classroom,  Anne Marie?


Anne- Marie Morgan [00:00:55] The best thing you can do to improve your NAPLAN scores is given enough time to additional languages learning. The NAPLAN data consistently show that those who speak another language at home do better on NAPLAN. If they come into school without English, they may not have reached that level at year three, but by year 5 and beyond they have surpassed the English only students. So you are learning additional languages is the most important thing you can do, but you have to have enough time as well. You need to have a sufficient time to develop skills.


Associate professor Kathleen Heugh [00:01:36] If we take NAPLAN as the benchmark because it's placed there and everything seems to swim around NAPLAN. Think about the international assessments and where Australia is ranked and relation to the international assessments in mathematics, science and literacy. Every single country that is above Australia, particularly the countries at the top, all of those kids are bilingual or trilingual, so the Asian countries, those kids have a home language and English might be a second or third language, but not one of those countries at the top is at the top because it's a monolingual education system, either in relation to literacy, mathematics or science. All of the countries at the top in terms of high achievement in mathematics and science are countries where the students are learning two or more languages. The issue is about languages, not just about language. It, it and some of the activities that we've tried today, that the process of working out languages and comparing what one knows and drawing from one's linguistic repertoire in order to work out what these problems might be to find the solutions is setting the the cognitive frame of the mind towards hypotheses, creating hypotheses, testing the hypotheses, comparing and finding solutions that is mathematical and scientific thinking. Language learning assists mathematical and scientific thinking. So if we in Australia want to move up, move our yardstick further than it is at the moment, we have to focus on languages first that will develop intellectual capabilities.


Rosa Garcia [00:03:33] Without a shadow of a doubt, I believe that the fact that I can speak one and a bit of other languages has actually made my English better. I did very well in English when I was in school and in university, and that is because I can speak another language, because I can understand systems of languages. I will throw one little incident. So I remember when I was about 14, my father sent me home back to Spain and I came back and the first day I came back there was an English test and it was around difficult words in English, and at the end of it, I came top of that, you know, I got the best marks. And the person who got the second best marks was a newly arrived German migrant. So, you know, the fact that we could speak other languages actually facilitated our English. So without a shadow of a doubt, I believe that learning additional languages only strengthens, you know, your your literacy, your first language. And I think if you if anybody else has a different first language, I think you would agree.


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:04:30] So we come to today, key idea three developing literacy, through languages. Literacy skills are not English specific, as we heard Susan states say. And indeed, literacy skills are very much developed as we know through the work that we do in our classrooms and we can work further in that field. Multilingual students are also more easily able to perceive language as a system. And so there are benefits not only in learning additional languages, but recognising and building upon the language as learners bring in the classroom as part of that literacy development. Every language contributes to their overall sense of self and their general literacy development. And we should be recognising and rewarding that, and reminding learners of that that it is not just the language they are learning, it is a whole repertoire of skills that are transferable. Students may possess rich linguistic resources. And it's important that we that we recognise and promote and support and include those in our conversations and that they should not be seen as deficits in their linguistic repertoire, as is often the case where there have been broken experiences of education and literacy development.


So finally, the purpose then for today is to reinforce the point that literacy remains a strong priority for the department. That learning additional languages represents an important opportunity to develop transferable literacy skills, especially when we look at them in a conceptual and overarching way, that developing literacy in both home languages and English is especially important and can be reinforced through second language learning. And that language teachers need to be supported as in events like this, to focus on the development of these skills to build student overall literacy capabilities. So we're looking to step beyond the singular languages that we teach and to think about how what we do in the classroom contributes to the overall development of the child from a linguistic perspective. So you've heard enough from that from the podium this morning. We want to begin now with an activity. So in your table groups now for five minutes, can you please consider and briefly discuss the following questions? What does the term literacy mean to you in your teaching of languages? What do you know of literacy practices in the mainstream classrooms, in your school sites? What do you know of learners literacy practices at home? And how can we activate existing knowledge and skills to enhance literacy development in our languages classrooms? I leave you with that for the next five minutes before we call you back. Thank you.


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Defining literacy, bi-literacy and multilingual literacy

Video transcript of defining literacy, bi-literacy and multilingual literacy 

Associate Professor Kathleen Heugh [00:00:03] I'm going to start with a few very simple definitions. The first one is that literacy in many English dominant countries like Australia, the United States, Canada, South Africa to a certain extent the United Kingdom, New Zealand is often associated only or mainly with English. So although languages teachers know that literacy is every important aspect of language teaching, somehow or other, for the last 20 years, most of the focus on literacy has been within the English language curriculum, and there has been a de-emphasis on literacy in the languages curriculum, a de-emphasis on explicit focus on literacy in the languages curriculum. This is an international trend. It is not something that is unique to Australia, but this is something that has happened. 


So in other words, an eye has been taken off the role of literacy in languages teaching. Bi literacy has become a really significant feature of languages, teaching and learning in the United States. And there are now about 36 states which have something that they offer students at the end of secondary school, which is a certificate or a seal of bi literacy proficiency. So a great deal of emphasis is coming back in the United States, for example, in relation to developing bi literacy expertise. Bi literacy is often also associated with students who come into the school, who already have literacy in their home language, and they are developing literacy in English. Or it can be related to students who are literate in English and they are developing their literacy in an additional language. Multilingual literacy is literacy in more than two languages.


Here, what we're trying to do is just give you a sort of a diagrammatic idea of what we're trying to talk about. The focus in this particular workshop and key idea is to look at the transfer of literacy expertise from one language to another. So because you are all languages teachers, you are in fact working at least within a context of bi literacy. For those of you who know that your students also have literacy in a home language, or then those students might be learning more than having two or three languages in the school or working with students who are developing their multilingual literacy. What we will be trying to do is to ensure that we maximise the opportunities to build on whatever literacy expertise students bring into the classroom from the home, we add what the mainstream literacy focus is in the schools, which is of course English. And we try in our languages teaching to recognise the kinds of literacy that students bring in English and also possibly their home language or language of faith. So we are looking at a continua and transfer of literacy from home language to English to additional language. We might also look at this as a continua, not just of literacy in the way that we normally think of or many people normally think of literacy as reading and writing is that it's a big continuum of building on the spoken language, hearing language, visual language, signed language. It's building on a bed of language that students are exposed to. So we talk about early or emergent literacy. We also talk about oral language or RSC. And there's a very interesting quotation if one can imagine this situation, reading and writing float on a sea of talk.


[00:04:26] And this talk, of course, can be signed talk. It doesn't have to be spoken talk. It builds also on phonological awareness for students who are hearing students. It focuses on and bolts on decoding the written text and encoding the written text. It focuses also on vocabulary building and corpus development. So it's about building up a body of vocabulary but also the structure of the language, so it's about the grammatical structure of each language, which is being taught, it moves towards reading with meaning and reading with meaning can be silent reading, but it can also be reading aloud. It moves on towards fluency and reading. And fluency in reading also relates to the speed at which one is able to read and understand text because it's one has fragile reading capabilities, one is unable to really understand written text, if one can't remember the point of the sentence. So if you start reading a sentence and it takes one too long to get to the end of the sentence, one loses track of the actual point of the sentence and then one lose track of the point of the text. The whole text that one's reading.


[00:05:57] So fluency involves speed, speed and automaticity of reading with comprehension. And it, of course, also relates to writing and writing can relate to including thoughts, feelings and thinking independently.


[00:06:16] Now, there are two phases of literacy development that we need to be very aware of. Usually in the first three to four years of learning to read, the focuses on learning to read. But literacy continues beyond the first three or four years of school to the point that reading and writing is necessary in order to learn.


[00:06:45] So the shift from learning to read and then reading and writing in order to learn is a really important shift to understand the job of teaching literacy does not end right about mark year three or four. It continues and it shifts and it becomes more and more complex.

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Site improvement plan – how do we penetrate it with languages?

Video transcript for site improvement plan – how do we penetrate it with languages?

Miriam Parsons [00:00:02] I'm going to... I suppose just give a picture of my context and what that means for me in terms of my own PDP goal. So working from the big picture down to as an individual, how that plays out, the three sides that I've got there, the little visuals are really not meant for you to read all the detail. It's just to remind you of what a SIP looks like or if you haven't seen your school SIP. That's what you should be looking for. To give you an idea and to I guess just to affirm that we're all doing the same thing here, everybody is engaged in the SIP process now. And for me, that's that's an affirming thing. That's a good thing. This is a moment to embed languages in the broader school curriculum. That's what we can do. And that's what I'm hearing in the conversation at my table, is that we're there at the start talking about what the SIP means to us as languages teachers, and therefore we can drive that agenda and be part of that instead of being an add on or forgotten part, if you like. Say, reflecting on how we make this meaningful and actually make a change as our big boss, Susan Cameron said to us this morning, how do we make this real and actually make practice? I guess we have to be really strategic as curriculum leaders and teachers in our sights at bringing together the agendas, the agendas of Australian curriculum languages, and we're all reporting now as from last year I think it became compulsory for us all to report against the achievement standard for languages. So we've been working in the implementation of Australian curriculum. We're working in the context of learning design and the cycle of teaching and learning. And LDAM, we're all doing that. And we're also in this interesting space now of SACE renewal and the move towards working with capabilities or focus on capabilities and concepts in the senior years. And I'm finding this really interesting now talking with more, engaging more with literacy discussions with teachers, non language teachers at my site to work out what the commonality is, what the consistent message is, what we can do across our school that works with for all our students for different languages.


So in terms of our site improvement plan, Open Access College, as well as having our overall goal of the previous slide, as you could see, we're able to have a target specifically for languages. And to me, a SIP is a living document. It's going to be changing, it's like the curriculum of the school. So it's always going to be there's always opportunity there to get in there and make changes in this three year cycle as we go on. So if you haven't got a go for languages in your SIP, maybe that's something to start thinking about and working with your... your school leadership with. In terms of structures of levels at Open Access College, the way that then we work towards that is through our teaching and learning teams and teaching and learning groups, teaching and learning groups like our PLCs, and again, that's common now. Everybody's working in a professional learning community and that may or may not be focused on language. But it is focused on moving learning for your for a group of students that you're working with. So, for us, lucky that we can have a PLC or a teaching a learning group that's focused on particular levels of schooling for languages, but cross languages. So different languages within those groups, and my focus is early years for this year because those are the students that I've identified as really wanting to focus on and move along. So my own PDP individual go as a teacher is therefore very much embedded in the work that I do in my teaching and learning group with the early years. And in turn that's supported by the work of the teaching team for languages at a faculty level. And then that in turn feeds into the site improvement plan and that the broader school framework, we're all doing the same things now that everybody else is doing in our schools. So we are able to have that that common language and that common approach more I suppose and work towards that and evolving technology, multilingual literacies, which brings us to today and the work that we're doing now. That's all.


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:04:38] Again, I leave you for five minutes with this discussion, which now grounds us back in our particular classrooms, so to focus attention on practical and contrary ideas, that's our main goal here for building literacy practices. We leave you with the question, what do you as language teachers need to know and understand before engaging in deeper literacy practices in the classroom? And given this South Australian Department for Education context and there's this is not a yes no or, you know, when a judgemental type of question, just to begin the conversation at your tables about the diversity of the experiences that we're having. How are you firstly, engaged with your school school site improvement plan? What does your site improvement or what is your site improvement plan? Literacy goal? What does the literacy goal mean for you as a language teacher? What does the literacy goal look like in your language classroom and, Are you connecting with English literacy practices? Now, the conversation here is to bring the diverse experiences at the table together to hear about where people are up to and where the SIP is fitting into your conversations as language teachers, educators. So the final question there, how do we bridge the gap between English literacy goals and our needs and interests in our languages classrooms? So I'll leave that with you. Just for five minutes. Thank you.


End of transcript.

How to link literacy learning in languages with English literacy learning

Video transcript for how to link literacy learning in languages with English literacy learning

Andrew Scrimgeour [00:00:01] We also recognise, of course, that in the languages classroom, there are still challenges that we face that are difficult to overcome than the most obvious of them is time on task. If you want to develop highly literate learners, then has to be the time available. So we often recognise that we do have limited time for language learning and for textual exploration, which limits literacy development opportunities. We've got a lot to do. We talk about the crowded curriculum across the eight learning areas, but we've got a crowded curriculum just within our languages classrooms as well. Secondly, and quite importantly increasingly is the fact that writing systems learning to read and write in alternative writing systems requires sustained focused attention to basic literacy skills. And that can be particularly problematic when you are on a limited time on task timetable. So there are things to consider; if literacy is our transfer and developmental, what can we as language teachers see in terms of the points of connection between literacies and teaching languages and the points of transfer between what we do and literacy development? Are these things clear to us? Are they self-evident to us? Or are these things that we have to work on and build upon? So can we see the points of connection? Can we see the points of transfer between literacy, particularly in the mainstream English language classroom, where we expect and where there is a general assumption that literacy traditionally lies and our language classrooms? So are we able to find synergies and points of connections and ways of, if you like, collaborating pedagogically between what is happening in the learners English language learning and what is occurring in our more time limited and in many ways linguistically more complex and challenging languages classroom.


Kathleen Heugh [00:01:49] It's how you negotiate with the English language literacy teachers to try to articulate what they are doing with what you doing and back and forth. Because if you can build on what they are doing and they can build on what you're doing, you can maximise those miserable little minutes you get in a week. So you have to try and steal from the English language teacher. But in a way in which it's a collaborative arrangement. Building on, transferring, making sure they know what you're doing and what you need.


Anne-Marie Morgan [00:02:21] I think you can extend that by, say, in your planning documents. I think you need to explicitly name what are the literacy, foci strategies and learning intentions and where might you resource those from within the class or within the school or the community to make much more explicit. How you can connect languages and their literacies and then make sure you can use that to communicate with other teachers in the school as well.


Miriam Parsons [00:02:57] So my message is, in considering all those perspectives, you are a literacy educator. Are you equipped to do that confidently? And if you're not or you sort of there, who and what resources are you going to draw upon and access to help you develop you in this in this area?


Kathleen Heugh [00:03:24] And this is for you to consider. Where is literacy in my list of teaching priorities? Who is the best, most likely advocate for languages and literacy is in my school. You need to pal up with. That person or that group of people, because together you will be much stronger than one teacher trying to do this all on your own. You need to have a collection of a collective of grouping of people who can work with you on this. The third question is how can I harness student and community collaboration and expertise? I've always found that when I am in the classroom and I much prefer being in school classrooms than anywhere else, that when I allow myself to be vulnerable and not be that person who knows everything in the classroom, the students are fantastic at correcting me and teaching me, and they are more attentive and they are more willing to experiment. So the dumber I am, the better they are. And I find it very useful because I learn a great deal from the students and hopefully they actually do learn from one another. So the a message that I have is never be afraid to let the students be language brokers in your classroom and your language tutors.


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What are the languages spoken in your community?

Video transcript for what are the languages spoken in your community?

Andrew Scrimgeour [00:00:02] In this session, we'll be engaging with languages and literacies beyond the languages that we normally teach, with a few exceptions. So there's a real sense of challenge in terms of this diversity in how we adapt and respond to it and how we can encourage kids to look around them and begin to see the landscape and begin to understand, you know, what are these languages, where do they come from and and why are they here and having a sense of comfort and engagement with it. So now I'll just move on to our first activity, which is a quiz. This is a hard quiz. There is no mug. At the end, can you please identify for me and just discuss amongst yourselves? What do you think that tip top six dynamic languages in Australia, and that is languages which have grown in number of speakers more than other languages in the last 10 years. So what do you think are the top six growing languages, dynamic languages in Australia over the last 10 years? Just quickly, have a chat amongst yourself and jot down what do you think they may be?


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:01:06] And here we have the data from the 2016 census in terms of the countries from which the migrants to Australia have come in the last 10 years. So these are countries with the greatest increase. So this is the raw data on the gross number of additional people from these countries who have arrived here in the last 10 years. So it doesn't include the long term Italian residents and those that were here before, but which countries of residents have grown the most in the last 10 years? And this is just country of birth, not their language spoken at home. So in terms of country of birth, the remarkable thing, I think is that we've had a greater increase in migration from India nationally than we have had from China. China is not our primary source of migration. India is, which is quite remarkable. Then we see a rapid drop down to other countries. Philippines in the third position, Vietnam, South Africa, as if you like an outlier non Asian country that is contributing a significant pool of migrants then Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea and Pakistan. So it's a rich and diverse range of countries. When we look and compare that data in South Australia where additional points again for living in regional areas, that is for being living not to go to Melbourne and Sydney, you can gain extra migration points. We find a different set of results. Now, India is even an even larger proportion than China in terms of country of origin. The Philippines remains in third position, but quite remarkably, the fourth largest source of migrants to South Australia comes from Afghanistan, in terms of growth rates and then Vietnam, similar to the national trend in which it was fourth, then Pakistan much higher up the list, then Iran, which did not appear on the national figures. In fact, it's West Asia, Afghanistan and Iran in particular, which figure much more prominently in South Australia than in the national figures. And when we convert that into language, we can see it has a particular impact on the languages which are spoken, actively spoken at home in South Australia.


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:03:26] Firstly, looking at languages spoken at home in Australia, we see a contrast in the figures in terms of number of speakers between 2006 and 2016. And we can see that Mandarin is by far the most spoken language at home as declared in the census in our nation. Chinese is our most spoken second language, followed by Arabic, which didn't appear in the migration figures, of course, because speakers of Arabic come from so many diverse nations. Then Cantonese, our third most spoken language, then Vietnamese. And then we see Italian and Greek actually in decline over the last 10 years. Then Filipino, Hindi, quite low on the list, given that the migration rates from India Hindi is the language spoken at home is not the language spoken by the majority of those people. And then we go on to Spanish largely from South America, then Punjabi, then Persian, Dari and then Korean. And that's the national figures. And if we look at that in South Australian terms, we see that Italian is still the most spoken language other than English in South Australian homes. Remarkable. There must be something about the weather, I think, and that leads to the longevity of the Italian community in South Australia. We see a rapid growth in Mandarin in second position, Greek still in third position in South Australia, despite the decline, then Vietnamese, then Persian. The fifth most spoken language in South Australia is Persian, Cantonese is a long way down the track compared to the national figures. People from Hong Kong don't want to live in, well, spaced single level dwellings in the suburbs. Then Filipino, Punjabi, Arabic and Hindi way down the track in South Australia in terms of top languages coming 10th. But when we look at the top six dynamic, this was the question that was put to you. Here are the top six dynamic languages in Australia. Mandarin has grown by a sum of nearly three hundred and eighty thousand speakers over the last ten years. But Punjabi is the second largest growth language in this country. Unbelievable. Followed by Filipino, then Hindi, then Vietnamese and then Arabic. They are the top dynamic languages in Australia, the languages with the greatest growth rates in the last 10 years. What did you get out of six? Okay. Then when we look at the. Then when we look at the South Australian figures, again, Mandarin stands out significantly above all other languages spoken in this community. But when we look at the top six there, we see Persian, Punjabi and Hindi are three of our top six languages and the other two being Filipino and Vietnamese. Persian, Punjabi and Hindi. They are the new growth languages, Filipino and Vietnamese have been around for some time and we all understand the growth and importance and dominance of Mandarin. And then we see the next six languages and Nepali, Gujarati, Arabic and Malayalam and then Urdu.


[00:06:46] So the impact in green of South and West Asian languages on South Australian community is profound. And these are languages that we know little about and often wouldn't recognise or be able to identify.


End of transcript.

Why do we need to connect with the students home language?

Video transcript for why do we need to connect with the students home language?


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:00:02] Why does this matter? Why are we talking about languages in our community when really we are largely focusing on and teaching the, you know, the key languages? What about the Australian curriculum? This document that, you know, really is meant to be the benchmark of where we stand. So how does it relate to and engage with languages other than those which are core, if you like? So we're our home languages in the ACL. And what is our role in recognising, enhancing and developing home language literacy in the languages classroom? Well, at one point in the Australian curriculum, in the introduction, it says "language learning provides the opportunity for students to engage with the linguistic and cultural diversity of the world and its peoples, to reflect on their understanding of experience in various aspects of social life and to reflect on their own participation and ways of being in the world and children who bring additional languages to our classrooms" we need to recognise that as part of their ways of being in our world. And for those who for whom these languages are not part of their repertoire, it is important that we engage them in the linguistic and cultural diversity, not just of the world, but of the immediate community and the peoples that surround them in their schools. So there's a fair and solid reference, if you like, to home languages and their importance in the introduction to the Australian Curriculum.


Then of course, over the page on in separate sections of the Australian Curriculum, it goes on to say and the aims that the languages curriculum develops, understanding of how culture shapes world views and extends learners understandings of themselves, their own heritage, values, culture and identity. In terms of student diversity, the Australian curriculum goes on to talk about learners bringing their first language or languages as the ones they use for their initial socialisation in their family or community to the second language classroom. So if we take a good socio cultural orientation and think about what learners bring in terms of how we then engage them with new languages and cultures, then we need to acknowledge and find ways of engaging with the learners linguistic and cultural identities. Over the page on the key ideas on language and culture. It talks in summary, that learners learn to communicate meaningfully across linguistic and cultural systems. This process involves reflection and analysis as students move between the new language being learnt and their own existing languages. We know that that is a natural part of the experience in our classroom. The Punjabi speaking kid sitting in a Chinese class in year 8 isn't processing that information through the prism of English, but through the prism of Punjabi potentially, or at least as one of the prisms through which they view it. And there is a potential opportunity to engage with and explore how they see the world of Chinese through that perspective of their Punjabi linguistic identity, let alone their cultural self. It goes on to say The experience of being in two worlds at once at least involves noticing, questioning and developing awareness of how language and culture shape identity.


[00:03:16] And so the intercultural understanding the Australian Curriculum goes on by learning a new language or learning to use an existing language in new domains and contexts, students are able to notice, compare and reflect on things previously taken for granted, like their mother tongue to explore their own linguistic, social and cultural practices as well as those associated with the target language. So if we take a very complex and diverse view of our learners, then these languages are a critical part of the context in which we map on a new language and culture onto their repertoire. So the final comment there in relation to literacy, quite importantly, learning languages develops overall literacy in this sense of it is value added strengthening literacy related capabilities that are transferable across languages, both the language being learned and the other languages that are part of the learners repertoire. So the more that we can find a way of engaging and bringing these languages to the surface in our classrooms, the more we are valuing who they are and giving them the potential to build and improve their understanding of their languages, which often are quite incidental and often peripheral in their educational experience and give them a place in the classroom.


Kathleen Heugh [00:04:29] Home language is the language that children speak at home. Sometimes we use the term first language, sometimes we use the term local language, sometimes we use the term mother tongue. Every single one of those terms is regarded as contentious by somebody or other. So we sort of trying to use a term that has come to be used quite frequently in places where that where we trying to avoid contention. It is not necessarily a single language. It can be a hybrid language, it can be multilingualism in the home because some families actually use multilingual practices. So it is the language that's used in the home or the language repertoire that's used in the home, I hope that helps.


Dr sam Osborne [00:05:15] Thank you. This this next question is probably an extension of that to some degree. How can we improve home language literacy when there's a restriction of using it? So I'm assuming that that's a specific context. It could be a pedagogical question for just a classroom teacher, for example, who's not specifically dealing with a language other than English classroom. But how can we improve home language literacy?


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:05:41] From my perspective, we often send kids home with homework that relates to something that parents can't engage with. And if we can add to that something where the kids take home and ask the parents questions about home language as part of the process, then we are using, you know, the parents will come on board with that. No parent is going to complain about the, you know, their kid from Canada coming up and saying and asking about Malayalam. And, you know, I have my son has a friend at Adelaide High who knows the language that he speaks, but he doesn't know where he comes from in India. You know, there's often it's just been so set aside in terms of their identity that when they're asked the questions are embarrassed because they just don't know. Nobody's ever asked them who they are and where they come from in the moment they do, the parents are going to really love that opportunity to see that the home language and culture are being inquired about and that are being sought out as part of the students learning. So I think, you know, your best resources is mum and dad, and I think they're more likely than not to be very willing to engage.


Dr sam Osborne [00:06:44] So that's sort of funds of knowledge, kind of position of valuing the assets of her family language culture and making room for them in the classroom, Anne-Marie.


Anne-Marie Morgan [00:06:53] Yeah. I'd just like to add, I really hope that there aren't contexts where the language resources are being stifled in that way. I think we've come a long way from, you know, leave English at the door if you're learning French, you know, because or whatever the language is. So valuing that set of language resources is so important, extending out into the home and community.


Janet Armitage [00:07:21] What the student's home languages are is actually the source of their shared knowledge with their families and their communitiesa and by opening up a little bit of space, when we're designing units of work, we're actually giving permission and inviting the knowledge from home to come into the classroom, and that's been the first step is actually to say the language that you use at home is welcome here. I think that's probably the the first the first step. I'd like to just make a comment as well about the little video that you saw of Andrews, because those students were in one of my classes. And although we've been doing oral language activities in home language, that was the first time that students had actually seen each other writing in their home languages. And I mean, I did feel a bit of miss that I hadn't gone that far myself, that they were absolutely amazed at what each other could do in the way of literacy in their home languages. And so it's still early days in building those bridges. But I think giving permission, acknowledging and honoring step one, when we give an opportunity for students to engage using their home language, it's home knowledge that comes with it. And along with more easily accessing higher order thinking, we're giving them an opportunity to exhibit their insider information, which adds layers.


Dr Sam Osborne [00:09:06] And certainly for me, having done a lot of work in remote schools, often it's the teacher who's the only one that's left out. So, you know, often when you talk about remote Aboriginal literacy and things like that, they say our disadvantage being behind deficit. But when you ask communities about what's happening, they say those poor teachers, you know, they just don't know what's going on with we should help those teachers so the only ones. So then there's a pedagogical question about how you make room for those assets of home language, family knowledges, etc into your classroom.

End of transcript.

Practical activity 1 – bringing home languages into the classroom

Video transcript for practical activity 1 – bringing home languages into the classroom

Kathleen Heugh [00:00:03] Some of you may know that in Finland, children at school learn Finnish and they also learn Swedish for historical reasons. Sweden was a colonizing country that colonized Finland, so they have a bilingual baseline policy. All children also learn English, but they are minority communities who live up in the Arctic region and there are a number of small communities of people who speak Salmi. Now, there's a project that has been run by Sari Pietikainen in Finland, and it's working with the multilingualism of the children in the classroom and on your table in the middle of your table, you should have two handouts like this. These are photocopies of little books that have been made by children. These are children who speak Saami and also they're bringing their salmi into the classroom. They're bringing their ability to know and use the Saami language, so the children start off making a little story. They each make a little story. They illustrate their story. And they want to write one line on each page. And then either they or their friends translate the story into other languages or additional languages that they know. So have a look at these. We've got some of the pages in your folder that the children actually get to see stories that they can recognize, that they can read and write in the language that they feel most comfortable with. Plus, they get to read the story in additional languages. So here is the next page. And you can just see that what happens is with the way in which these little books on made the actual mechanism, which is hand-writing, children's own handwriting, is the primary literacy and visual representation in the little book. And then the story gets translated and typed below in different languages, including the original language. So what we would like you to do now is each person to use one of those A3 sheets of paper on your table. We would like you to make a story, a children's story using the languages that you have at your table.


Kathleen Heugh [00:02:39] That's something that I want to suggest, is we often imagine that something is a simple process. The process of translating is an incredibly complex metter requires meta linguistic expertise. We cannot see those processes because they happen in the brain. The very process of asking students to translate what they have said into written text and then perhaps into another written language is a set of incredibly complex higher order cognitive tasks that we ask students to do. So every one of the little tasks that we have given you today may have appeared to be more suited for primary or early primary school students. But if you think about them a little bit more deeply, every single one of those tasks can be used at every level of the learning continuum from pre-primary all the way through to secondary. The actual process of translating one that doesn't just work with word to word translation. One has to actually translate it. And then one has to version the translation into the appropriate discourse style of the target language. So those two steps, it's not a one step process, it's at least a two step process, or even if it is just translating a little baby story book, the complex meta linguistic processes are incredibly complex. So the longer the narrative text, the more complex the texts are that we use, the more complex the higher order thinking happens to be.


[00:04:24] Translation is one of the most important concepts. And it is central to trance languaging. It was thrown out of the schooling pedagogy. Translation is back big time internationally in terms of languages teaching.


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Practical activity 2 – bringing home languages into the classroom

Video transcript for practical activity 2 – bringing home languages into the classroom

Dr Mei French [00:00:05] So now we want to look at bringing languages together in the languages classroom. And of course, there's more then our target language in that classroom, there are the home languages of our students. And for some students, that's English. And for some students, you know, we've seen the diversity of languages that we have in South Australia, and of course, everyone's classroom is different. And, you know, some of the range of languages that the students in your classroom know. And there might be languages there that you you don't know about yet and that you've got the opportunity to find out more about. And of course, the Department for Education really has acknowledged a lot of this diversity and how our students multilingual resources really are resources that support their learning across languages. Some of the points that Andrew raised earlier in the day, you know, we really know that literacy skills are not English specific. So students bring a range of those skills with them into the classroom. We know that multilingual students are more easily able to perceive language as a system. And then the way they attack, learning an additional language is supported by that. We know that development of skills in one language has benefit in learning another. So we're now when we have students who are experienced in learning languages, they bring those skills with them to the classroom. And when we have students whose home language is English and may be learning their first additional language, we know that learning of that language will benefit them in their English and across all of their learning. But the big question here is like, yeah, we know it's great. They don't need to tell me that. Right. But what do we do? So we want to give you some more examples for practice and look at ways to draw on and connect students whole linguistic repertoires for language learning and for literacy learning in your classrooms. And we know that because there's such a diversity of contexts, it's really important to have the time to be creative and think about how to make that work for you. So I'm going to hand over to Kathleen, who will lead us through an activity. Thank you, Kathleen.


Kathleen Heugh [00:02:30] Thank you Mei. So, we going to play around with little wise sayings that we often use when we are parents and we giving advice to children or we are teachers giving advice to students in the classroom, and we're going to see how we might be able to use these wise sayings and the degree to which they actually translate directly from one language to another. Now, this was an activity that I ran in, in a bilingual teacher training program in Bhopal in India a few years ago, and what we did was we tried to work with a wise saying in a language. And if you look at the third line from the top, you'll see the English version of this as translated was empty pot makes noise. Now, can you tell me what that would be in standard English as we know it is in Australian English? How would we say that? Empty vessels make the most noise? No, I have a great sensitivity towards that particular one because the teachers used to say to me when I was in primary school, remember that empty vessels make the most noise. So I have to try and remember about this and try to shorten what I say. Okay. So we had the teachers in this room and they came up with their their languages and their scripts. Andrew, because the scripts in India are you would notice, not exactly identical, but what we found was that depending on where people came and the language in which the wise saying was understood had variations. And we had a really interesting discussion about the variations. And when it came back to English, it wasn't the empty vessel makes the most noise, it's empty pots makes noise. So it's a slightly different interpretation. I'm going to not take you through images of some cards that were made in relation to wise sayings. And they come from South Africa and from a part of South Africa where three languages operate and children regularly learn to use three languages.


And I'll start with English, because that's most unfamiliar to you. But you will see that the illustrations also indicate that the wise saying in English that like a fish out of water. Now, I don't know if there's anybody here who understands Afrikaans or Dutch or German who can work that. 1 what it is in Afrikaans, in Afrikaans "se ons Soos'n vis op droe grond" is a fish on dry ground. Thank you. So like a fish out of water isn't translated directly in Afrikaans wise saying has a slight change in meaning and it has to do with the cultural context. Now, the other thing I want you to just note here that the wise is saying at the top of each card changes in terms of the language, because what we were trying to do with these cards was to show students in the classroom and also children in general that it's not necessarily the case that you have to have English in big letters and another language in small letters. So the next one is... Now you've got the Cossa at the top, followed by English. So what I've tried to show you is a sequence of how you can arrange languages in sequence of priority. And here you've got "Umvundla uzek' indlela", which doesn't mean the apple falls far from the tree. You can see that from the picture. What does it mean? The rabbits don't go very far away from their homes. They run around their homes. They muck around in their homes. So it's the same sort of thing that apple doesn't fall far from the tree. Why do you think you might have different wise saying for the apple doesn't fall far from the tree? In another language, maybe they don't have the right in the areas that the Cosser speaking people traditionally live. There are no apple trees. So why would you have the apple doesn't fall far from the tree. But you do have rabbits or hares and they hang around to make a nuisance. Okay. So, what I would like you to do is to go back in your files to a little task. And I would like you in groups form a group of teachers with different languages at your tables. Think of a well-known proverb that is known in different communities. Even if there are some differences and translate this into the languages of the group and help each other to do this. And then I want you to think about the challenges that you face when you're doing this and how you resolve them. You could, but you don't have to do this. This would be an alternative. So if you don't want to do this, you could see how you might turn this into a poster. All right.


But I think leave that rather work with part A because we don't have enough time. So try to see if you can get agree.. in your group of three or four on a wise saying and see how you can translate it. You don't have to start with it in English. You could start with it in the language that you are teaching and translate back. So these are really just a taste of what one could be doing. Some of these activities could take two or three lessons. So it's really awkward thing about trying to do a lot of things in in a workshop is that you get a little taste. So I apologise for that. There's a resource that you might be able to use. And it takes you to a portal, a global portal. It's called the Story Book, The Global Story Book Portal. This is where Professor Bonnie Norton Pearce has opened up a global Website for people who want to translate stories or make stories. And what has happened is they've developed something from originally the African Story Cookbook Project I can't remember the number of countries now or 36 countries or 36 different portals that they've got. You might find some of these stories and the portal helpful because there is also a site where you can download the structure of a storybook and you can actually populate this or your students might be able to do this. So you might find that's useful to you.


Kathleen Heugh [00:09:08] We would like you just to spend a couple of minutes reflecting on some of the things that you have been working with and thinking about over the last while. What do you or your students do with home languages in the classroom? In other words, the languages that the students bring. What connections do you make between English and additional languages for literacy in your languages teaching? How can you use home languages? Different scripts? English literacy and English literacy to enhance the literacy in your languages classroom. So really the question is, number three, what do you think that you might be able to do after wrestling with some of the things that we've been working with today? How would you be able to build that trajectory from the home languages, English and into your languages classroom, trying to massage the miserable number of minutes that you get a week. But pulling in and stealing from what other people are doing in order to try to develop literacy in the language that you teach.


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Translanguaging – what is it and why do we want to use it?

Video transcript for translanguaging – what is it and why do we want to use it?

Kathleen Heugh [00:00:03] Many of you will have heard the word translanguaging in relation to languages teaching. There's a great deal of hype around translanguaging. We want to make sure that you get a sensible, practical understanding of what translanguaging can do and how it might be used in a languages classroom. The one thing is that we know that the conventional view of languages is that two languages are generally taught as two isolated systems. The focus has tended to be historically on the structure of those languages. So you've got the vocabulary of what the actual grammatical structure and so on. But most people who live in bilingual and multilingual parts of the world engage in practices where they bring words, they borrow words from one language that pop them into the language that they're using. English, by the way, is not a pure language. It is a dog's breakfast of languages. Okay. It is just the biggest advertising. I don't think you have another word in Australia, in South Africa. We would say fuphy. It is the biggest fuphy of all time because it's not actually one language, it's just a collation of languages. Okay.


We've borrowed from Greek, Roman, every single language community that the English speakers have ever come into contact with, they just pinch their vocab pop in and there is English. So what happens is English has been translanguaging. It has been borrowing words, it has been absorbing words. People have been using alternating between expressions in English or French or German. They pop in Latin sometimes they pop them in all over the place. In our South Australia, we've borrowed a lot of vocabulary from all of the migrant communities who have come here, and we have borrowed a lot of vocabulary from the indigenous communities who were here before all of us. So code mixing is mixing of languages. Usually you have a dominant structure and you just incorporate a few words or phrases into a dominant language. Code-switching can be a chunk of language you speak or you write, or you use a chunk of one language and you switch over and you use another chunk of a language. The technical thing is that if you use at least a clause in a sentence in one language and you switch over a new then you develop a second clause, a subordinate clause in the second language you are code-switching. If you have one sentence in one language and you alternate with one sentence in a second language, that is code-switching. If you speak for ten minutes in one language or you write a paragraph in one language and you switch over and you write or speak in the other language, that is code switching. We normally do this for particular purposes. It's not arbitrary. Everybody's got a reason for why they do this. We often do this when we want to emphasize something. We often do this for effect. I used to do this with my children.


If I wanted them to listen to me, they wouldn't listen to me and behave and obey me in English. So I'd have to invoke code because that's I. Oh, okay. We we use code-switching very often for deliberate purposes. Now sometimes in teaching languages, the idea that children or students might code mix or code switch has got a bad name and it's been regarded as an illegitimate practice. So, during the period when we felt that it was necessary to separate two languages completely and use the direct method or the audio lingual method, we said to students in the classroom, you are only going to speak French, you are only going to speak Chinese. But that has never happened in practice. We have always engaged in various code mixing and code-switching practices because as teachers we know the students can't understand only the target language. We have to mediate. So we use code-switching actually quite purposefully, quite often. So what has happened is that there is no contemporary view that this is a normal thing to do. And because we move back and forth between languages, people have started saying language is not a thing, it's not a noun, it's actually a verb, it's a process we're involved in languaging. The word translanguaging is a translation of a Welsh term for the practice of purposeful or deliberate code switching in a classroom in a bilingual classroom between Welsh and English, Welsh used for explaining what's going on. English is for reading and writing perhaps, and vice versa. So that the term originally came from purposeful code switching. Usually in order to make students feel comfortable in the classroom. So when we are saying what's important to work with the children or the students home languages, their English and their additional languages, we try to make things very comfortable for the students in the classroom. We might use translanguaging so that we are promoting students well-being. We're trying to equalize things. We're trying to make language learning. Not a big terrifying ordeal, but it's something where if you don't know everything,  you'll be able to use your translanguage in practices so we can use translanguaging for convivial horizontal purposes. And that helps students to feel comfortable in the classroom, however, it's also our job to ensure that students learn the target language as well as possible. So we also have to find ways to separate the language and usually the target language. We're teaching the target language, teaching the vocabulary, teaching the sentence structure. We're teaching our students to read and write text in the target language. So we use both horizontal and vertical aspects of translanguaging. And what we're trying to suggest here is that it's really important to know that you can use the horizontal approaches to translanguaging for part of the time, but not all of the time. Most likely because you are time strapped, you have to limit that amount of time and most likely you have to spend most of your time on teaching the target language and separating the languages. But you can use both both aspects of translanguaging, and the way to focus on the vertical approach is to use translation, translating things like wise sayings, translating little stories and reading and writing tasks that the students can work with.


Dr Mei French [00:07:17] So we've talked a bit about translanguaging, this great buzz word thinking about this. I broke down some some purposes that translanguaging can serve in your languages classroom. And of course, translanguaging can be English in the target language. It can be home languages and English home languages and target language and everything together. So these multilingual practices can support students to work together. It can be a teaching strategy and it can be something that teachers model to show. This is what multilingual people do. It can support fluency in writing and earlier Kathleen was talking about fluency, as you know, being able to write quickly or just continue without being stuck. And trans languaging can be a very useful little shortcut to say I don't know that word, I pop it down and come back t o it later. translanguaging, particularly for students who are multilingual, is a support for the higher order thinking, because they have additional resources which help them think about things from a different perspective or think with a different level of ease about concepts that you're teaching in the class. Translanguaging and this is I find really exciting can be content that students can analyze to say, hey, what's happening with language here, what's happening with languages together here? And you'll see an example of this. And of course, translation is a really specific set of skills that students can learn and developed from early ages and with different proficiencies in languages. So these are examples that we will see.


Dr Mei French [00:09:04] Translanguaging for multilingual students is a very purposeful practice. It's always purposeful. It's never an accident. And I'm sure, in your own experience, you would understand where I'm coming from when I say that. And translanguaging supports relationships. It supports learning. It supports connection to culture and keeping culture and language alive, particularly in an environment that can sometimes feel hostile or a bit limiting. When minority languages come into play and also really importantly, trans languaging supports personal identity. So I can give you some examples here of what students in this school were doing with language. So we can see here, students use language to support their family and to connect with the community and to make connections between family members and the community through translation. Students use their languages for collaborative learning and to support each other, and you can see in the second example of Selena. She was helping a new student from India in science, but they didn't actually have a shared language as such. So Selena was Afghan. She spoke Hazaragi. She'd lived in Pakistan and she knew Urdu. The other student was kudrati. So she spoke kudrati, but she also knew Hindi. Now, as luck would have it. Hindi and Urdu for these students was mutually comprehensible languages so they could communicate with each other.


Dr Mei French [00:10:54] The students also use their languages for their independent learning. And you can see the example of Shanaya who would? You know, think about something in English, think. Now that's not working. I'll switch to my other language and see see what happens, see if I can come up with some more ideas. So translanguaging, I mean, none of this happened by accident. All of it took effort, but all of it supported learning and it was totally worth it. But the question is, what's the teachers think? Festivals? Do they know what's going on? Sometimes. Do they know what to do with it? Not very often. And this is sometimes where we get a bit maybe worried. What do we do with this? But as languages teachers, I think, you know, we have a good foundation and we have an advantage that, yeah, I get this in a social context. I can say this is not a taboo kind of activity. And the question then becomes, you know, not should it happen or not, but how can I make this into a resource in my classroom? So we can see here that these teachers from different learning areas, we've got HASS, Drama, Languages and English represented here, that they can see the value of these languages and translanguaging and that these practices support their students identities, support the subject learning, support their thinking and support them in language learning as well, so you can be a tool for fluency or it can be a content type of content for analysis.


[00:12:35] But we can see here that it's also a learning process as well and something that's purposeful and worth attending to I suppose, and thinking about... How can we make more of this in our classrooms?


End of transcript.

How to bring translanguaging into the classroom

Video transcript for how to bring translanguaging into the classroom

Janet Armitage [00:00:03] Some of the work that I've been exploring in classes has has led to a few conclusions mostly about how this might look. So in the planning process, some of the conclusions that I've drawn are that right from the beginning with students and their learning tasks in a secondary context, are set very clear expectations about what aspects of learning are encouraged in home language or in English or in target language. I also let them know from the start what exactly will be assessed and we will discuss together what ways home language might support the learning that will get them to the assessment point. We also, through discussion with my students, had a lot of ideas about okay, if they're the experts in their home languages, what am I doing there? And I've explained to my students that teachers do have a lot of expertise, including classroom management, that they should have high expectations of me coming in, having planned the space in their learning for their home languages to enter, and that a lot of the units of work that we do, I can manage them like quite large projects, that when it comes to explicit teaching in the classroom, that one of my jobs is to help them go from their home language knowledge and their knowledge of English to a target language or in EALD is to shift from what they bring to the classroom across to standard Australian English. I'm also an expert in text types, text structures, grammar vocabulary, ICT and more skills that the students can use me as a resource. We made a list together with students that they are experts in their home languages, that they're doing a lot of their learning with each other and they are actually communicating across various home languages. They make their own contacts in community and they bring the knowledge from home quite often this will be written into homework tasks. So again, it's about the quiet, deliberate planning of what they will bring. They're also pragmatics experts in ways that I don't have the variety of language knowledges that they do and they support their peers with all of the work in the classroom, regardless of which language they're using, whether it's there in the ICT skills or often it's in proofreading where they're able to speak in one language and help each other to develop their texts in another language. Thank you. Just to give you a few ideas on what that might look like.


Dr Mei French [00:03:09] One of the things that I often get asked is: this is great, we know that multilingual students use languages for lots of things outside the classroom, but they've got to get their assignments done. They've got to pass their tests and their exams. How does this all fit together? So one thing that I find quite useful to talk to teachers about is that we can look at the vertical multilingual dimension and the horizontal as having different applications. A lot of the time, not all of the time. So this is like a mnemonic more than, you know, a rule. When we look at the vertical dimension, we see high status genres, academic expression, technical vocabulary and academic outcomes, which are often in English, but in our case, also the target language. And this allows students to access powerful forms of language. And we often build these through genre based and functional pedagogies. And these are the things that students, particularly as they've progressed through their language learning, need to be able to achieve well in assessments. On the other side is the horizontal dimension where we see, I guess, the natural, the personal, the social language uses, where speakers draw on different repertoires and negotiate meaning across a range of systems. You know, the focus is on the goal of communication and the form on formality of doing that, it's not necessarily as important. This is also part a really important part of the process of learning. And this is where we're trying to bring in these multilingual pedagogies. So one way to think about it and it is the simplified way is that the vertical aspects of multilingual literacies might be the product that students are producing, the more academic side of things, whereas the horizontal dimension really supports the process of learning. So it can be useful to think about things that way, but it can also be really powerful and interesting to think about.


How can I bring horizontal dimensions into the product of learning and to make these more visible in the classroom? And the good news is, going to give you a few examples. On your table you'll see some resources and we don't need to go to those quite yet. But I'll explain them for you, because there's three sets of things that you're going to be using next. The first is a template, which is just a task analysis template,and then we're going to use this on this side is space for you to to write your thoughts. So there's both matching and writing here. You've got a plastic bag and an envelope. So I'll explain what these are. The first thing you might notice is the A4 pages. These are samples of work. And these can be matched against descriptions of tasks, the descriptions of the tasks in the envelope that conveniently cut up for you and turns out. They're just the right size to fit in the top left box. So, there's a bit of bluetag on your table as well, so you can, you know, stick down the task description, stick down the matching students, sample or teach a sample. It might be and then have a go at adding your thoughts down on the right hand side, match the description of the task and the excerpt of student work. Or there may be excerpts of classroom practice, try to think about the purpose of translanguaging in this task and the skills that students are using. And we'd love your thinking about how to adapt it to your particular context.


Dr Mei French [00:07:16] Thank you everyone. I'm sorry to have to pull you away from such rich discussion, so I hope and I think that you've got some ideas out of this. I want to pass on my enthusiasm for multilingual and translanguaging tasks in the classroom. They really do work and they can be a bit of an energizer in terms of making things different, making things interesting, but also making a strong connection to what students know and bring to the classroom. But I know we often think, well, I don't really know how to do this. I haven't, you know, gone into this. I haven't had a lot of training. So my message here is, don't worry. I find as a teacher and also for my students, multilingual and translanguaging tasks can be really fun, really engaging. And they don't have to be that difficult. Start small. Listen to your students. What are they into? Maybe they love K-pop or maybe, you know, there's a great new show on TV that they they're into that's multilingual. Or maybe they watch a lot of gaming streams that bring in different languages, use that build on what the students can already do and go from there. Build your own confidence by starting with something that you're into. But I hope that you can find something fun to do in the classroom that brings in the multilingual and the translanguaging aspects.


Kathleen Heugh [00:08:56] We have a question here how can trans languaging be used effectively and meaningfully for SACE one and two students?


Janet Armitage [00:09:09] I was just telling Mei about this wonderful essay that I read by a student for a language study where he was writing about what are the advantages of knowing more than one language when working for Woolworths and his text samples were conversations that he had with another Cantonese speaking colleague. By the way, they're both Year12 students who are working night shifts for Woolworths. And so he was analysing why were they speaking in Cantonese and how was that accepted in the workplace? Another text sample was about a customer who he seems to attract customers who arrive and speak to him in Vietnamese because of the neighbourhood that Woolworths is found. And so he finds that quite, he found that that was something he could comment on in his language study. And the last one was about how he can actually help customers to relax when they are approaching him for information. So he that there's just one example of how he found a really interesting topic from his own life as a multilingual person. Another one. Another example was the use of text messages. And so her language study was how do bilingual text messages show what people are thinking, you know, in there? Their friendship exchanges. So they were able to submit those with the samples of text, screenshots of emoticons, emojis and everything else. So I think what you can do in space is only limited by both your students and your imagination within the parameters of the SACE tasks.


Andrew Scrimgeour [00:11:10] We have seen in the past too much separation between the target language and English as the two dominant languages in this SACE. You know, everything that kids have to produce is is clearly constrained and divided one or the other. And it's not the way kids think and it's not the way they process language. And, you know, I think we could through the class work, we're always trying to get both the most and the best communicative outcome from the kids, but also the deepest cognitive outcome. And if you need to move between two languages in order to do so, that surely is in balancing your understanding. So we've just got to, you know, break down some of our constraints that have been imposed upon us by the rules of the past and realise that developing bilinguals move between their two languages rapidly and in spontaneous ways and that's what we should be looking for.


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